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These articles explore the current information from archeology, paleoclimatology, population genetics, languages, and so on, to explore one facet of history since the Ice Age, the development of the boat as a central part of a ways of life  - much like the automobile and truck today - and how this innovation allowed humans to travel some 5 times further or farther than previously on foot, and use all water bodies and rivers as readymade highways.  This themed study would be similar to someone writing articles on the development and expansion of farming. Plenty of that has been done, This may be the first time, anyone has actually tracked the development of the use of boats as a daily instrument at the core of a culture's survival .

PREFACE >> PREFACE to 2016 EDITION:

INTRODUCTION >> UIRALA - INTRODUCTION - The World of the Way of the Waters
Discussing how humankind was caught in the dramatic rise in temperature as the Ice Age ended, bringing thousands of years of hunting large animals on open tundra and plains to an end, and forcing a completely new way of life that lead to the second human expansion by boats,

CHAPTER ONE >> MAGLEMOSE EXPANSION - FOREST BOAT-USING HUNTER-GATHERERS
The development of European boat-using hunter-gatherers in Boreal Europe

The rise of the "Maglmose " boat people culture out of the death of the "Ahrensburg " reindeer hunter culture, The boat using hunter-gatherers entered flooded glacier depressed lands easily and dominated all lowland regions of Greater Europe until the southern humankind managed to adapt to the warmed climate and loss of big herd animals in other ways and expanded northward. Kalevi Wiik's theory of a "Uralic" early Europe seems to be correct for the period when Europe was dominated by dense, mainly wetland, wilderness. Just like in North America, the indigenous Europeans of "Maglemose" origins, were overtaken by the settlement-oriented civilizations pushing north, but much more gradually than the five centuries or so it has taken North America to be displaced by European civilization

Supplementry article: LANGUAGES DISCUSSION ("URALIC" and "FINNO-UGRIC")
The "Uirala" articles cover the story told by archeology, and does not go into detail about languages. Becuse there is much interest in the origins of "Finno-Ugric" languages and the an old "Uralic" linguistic theory, this has been added here for those wishing to consider the link between the archeological story and language. This article reviews the century old "Uralic" languages theory that imagined a migraton from the Urals westward, and how it was invented when there was very little information other than linguistic distances between the languae. It then investigates the story that is told by over a century of accumulated evidence in archeology, genetics and other sciences - showing that the originl model makes no sense.

CHAPTER TWO >> 
THE KUNDA OCEANIC BRANCH: SEA-GOING SKIN BOATS AND OCEANIC EXPANSION: The Voyages of the Sea-Hunters
The "Kunda" seagoing boat people, arose from both the "Swiderian" reindeer culture, and the "Maglemose" culture, taking ideas from both. Basically it can be viewed as a branch of the "Maglemose" that took interest in hunting the open sea for large sea-mammals including seals and whales.  Hunting large mammals was in their blood from Ice Age experience hunting animals as large as mammoths. But it was necessary to transfer the organization and teamwork used on land, to the sea, and that involved large boats. Out of it came seagoing skin boats and an expansion of sea-hunting peoples around the northern seas.  
Related Supplementary Articles
o EXPLAINING "LONGHOUSE FOUNDATIONS" ON LABRADOR COAST
This is an alternative, more realistic, interpretation of the archeological finds of the Labrador coast of North America, compared to "far-out" interpretations by author F. Mowat in his "Farfarers"
 3. SOME EXAMPLES OF EXPANSION BY SEA BY NON-WHALING ABORIGINAL PEOPLES  Looking at Picts, Algonquians, and Pacific Coast Tribe

CHAPTER THREE >> UIRALA LANGUAGES PDF ARTICLES
o COMMENTARY ON KALEVI WIIK'S CONTROVERSIAL ARTICLES
This is a short summary and commentary on the ideas of Kalevi Wiik expressed by articles
"TUNDRIC" LANGUAGE FAMILY TO REPLACE "URALIC"
A discussion of the problems with the traditional model of the  "Uralic Language Family", to show that the interpretation made a century ago is long out of date. A new intepretation of the linguistic analysis is offered that much more closely fits the information from archeology, etc

THE VENETI - Boat peoples are pre-adapted to function in long distance trade
  GO TO THE MENU ON ANCIENT VENETI

(see the VENETI LANGUAGE branch in the menu two steps back, for many pdf documents on the Venetic languaage.)


author: A.Paabo, Box 478, Apsley, Ont., Canada

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2013 (c) A. Pääbo. UPDATED 2017