began investigating the evidence in the academic world of the
rise of boat-using hunter-gatherers at the end of the Ice Age, its
success, and its expansion already before 2000. My purpose was to
present available information in relevant sciences of an almost obvious
event - human response to the sudden warming of the world climate
towards the end of the Ice Age.
While archeologists knew all about the collapse of
reindeer hunting and the conversion to a boat/canoe oriented way of
life that was identified as the "Maglemose Culture", by I don't think
the significance of this development was understood, since boat use is
taken for granted today. While humans could fashion water craft of some
kind to cross a body of water, here they were developing a streamlined,
thin walled, dugout that not only allowed them to move around in a
flooded landscape south of the glaciers, but it in fact allowed them to
travel faster than even on open solid ground, and also to access the
bounty of aquatic plants and animals previously unaccessible. My
feeling that this significance was not realized in the academic world,
and that instead of it being just another innovation, it was as
dramatic as the invention of horseback riding to the Indo-Europeans.
By about 10,000 years ago, the world
temperature had suddenly, in less than a millenium, warmed from arctic
to similar to what it is today, and then for a while even
warmer than today. But the glacier still covered all of Scandinavia and
northern Russia. It was like a snowball on a summer's day.
Torrents of water were pouring out of the glaciers, flooding
the lands south of the glaciers. The heat and flooding also
ensured one more thing - that there was no more tundra for large arctic
climate animals. Mammoths, with their wholly coats were like being
dressed for winter on a summer day. They no longer had their proper
habitat, other than the mountains of northeast Siberia.
Other exotic animals that had developed during the
Ice Age cold, suffered too and became extinct. It is remarkable that
reindeer survived. In spite of the loss
of its original tundra, small groups of reindeer (called caribou
in North America) found refuges, in alpine
environments. But the enormous north-south migrating
reindeer herds were no more, and the reindeer hunters who had been
dependent on them lost a tradional way of life and were forced to
die as well or adapt.
Nor were the lands south of the original tundra
dramatic impact of climate warming. Vast regions formerly grassy
plains originally filled with other large herd animals like horses,
aurochs (wild cattle) were now being consumed by forests, particularly
towards the west. The steppes shifted east. Horse herds shifted
with the steppes, and horse hunting tribes followed the horse herds.
South of the horse-hunters there were the
southern Europeans that had to deal with the rise of dense forests.
Evidence suggests that in the Iberian Peninsula, hunters of wild
cattle, advanced to domesticating them
WEALTH OF INFORMATION FROM ARCHEOLOGY GIVES CLARITY
The story of the boat peoples begins with the
response of reindeer hunters in northern Europe to the sudden climate
warming and flooding . The following maps, drawn on a base map derived
from the internet (source is given along the bottom of the map), depict
The first map, depicting about 13,000 years
ago, is labelled with the archeologically defined "Ahrensburg" and
"Swiderian " reindeer hunting cultures that gave birth to the
"Maglemose" and "Kunda" boat-oriented cultures.
My maps also add additional arrows to show the
northward shifting of Asian reindeer hunters as well. These Asian
reindeer hunters also carried the Y-DNA N-haplogroup in their genes.
(If viewing this on a smartphone,
turn sideways to see images larger. The source of the base
map is introduced along the bottom)
Culture was doomed first, as reindeer were blocked from continuiing
north, except that there were reindeer up in Britain, and they survived
for a while. But the Swiderian Culture, being to the east of the
glaciers, was able to shift northeast from the Poland location, reached
into Finland. But it did not last long. The climate became like it is
today and even warmer. All tundra was gone, and if reindeer survived it
may have been in small numbers in the mountains at the north end of the
Reindeer herd and hunter migrations from the Central
Siberian Plateau shifted up to the Tamir Peninsula (the eastermost arrow)
According to geneticists, the haplogroup involved there was the
N2-haplogroup. (N2 is now N1b, as geneticists make
revisions to the naming system) The N2 haplogroup has only relatively
recently been diffusing southwest .
The next map shows the situation a few millenia later.
The second map above, shows how reindeer herds
were doomed, except possibly (we do not know) at the north end o the
Ural Mountains, and definitely at the Tamir Peninsula area. The
reindeer were also fine in northeast Siberia.
Archeology has found that the "Fosna Culture"
(not appearing yet) along the south Norwegian
coast probably arose from the Ahrensburg - Maglemose culture, but they
have determined that the "Komsa Culture" (also appearing a little
later) that appeared at an early time
in arctic Norway, appears to have come from the east - which is
consistent with the theory I will present in the UIRALA articles, based on rock carving
images.. The boat peoples story, you will see, proposes that boat
peoples developed skin boats at Lake Onega, and began annual visits to
the bounty of sea life in arctic Norway, and the "Komsa Culture"
obviously arose when some of these people did not return south for the
winter, and stayed there through the winter darkness.
Mostly, in the above map, I show with blue arrows
and blue tone the mirgation of boat peoples.. I
suggest that these boat peoples had no reason to stop. They may - at
least eventually - have followed rivers as far as the Lena River.
Also shown in the second map, are the words R-H
remnants. It is possible that there may have been surviving elements of
reindeer people, who were hunting individual reindeer, elk, and moose, but who had not yet
adopted boats. If so, then these peoples would have quickly joined the
culture of the boat peoples.
PROOF OF MIGRATIONS BEYOND THE URALS
Rock carving at Shiskino at the upper
end of the Lena River. This is proof that peoples with a large dugouts
travelled from Ob to Yenisei, to Ankara to the upper Lena Rivers, What
is puzzling is the ears. I think they may be wearing headgear made from
mooseheads that included its ears, much like modern pyjamas for
children that include animal ears. Or it could be a more designed
headdress. We have to consider that there people would have needed
headgear of some kind.
The following narrative is taken from archeology;
however, we may mention some language or genetic considerations, if
they can be made part of the archeological story: but the archeological
story rules. Our purpose is to focus on the narrative relating to
peoples with a boat-oriented way of life, which is mainly to organize
existing knowledge in order to reveal a new perspective, and sometimes
In the following articles I also address the
expansion of boat
peoples southward through the waterways. Information in that
is not the subject of discussion, because traditionally the idea
presented here - that boat peoples expanded everywhere their boats
could take them - has never before been explored. I also
the expansion of the boat peoples into the seas, and investigate
whether distant aboriginal sea-hunting peoples have languages that have
some resonances with Finnic.